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博雅教育:为什么很多外国人都懂拉丁语?

发布时间:  2016-12-22    点击:

博雅教育12月22日讯 在英美国家你会发现的,日常口语交流甚至写作中会频频遇到拉丁语词汇。博雅小编下面为大家总结的这些拉丁语是每个要来美国上大学的孩纸必知道的词汇。

为什么很多外国人都懂拉丁语

虽然现在没有一个城市或者一个国家在用古拉丁语,但这不意味着我们应该彻底忘记这种语言。事实上,不仅仅在英语(和其他很多语言)中有许多单词都是从拉丁文衍生出来的,在日常的写作和交流中一些拉丁单词仍被使用得很频繁。所以虽然你不需要系统地学习和掌握拉丁语,但是记住一些常被用到的拉丁词汇和短语无疑会对你的大学学习帮很大的忙。

一、Must-Learn Terms 必记的术语

Per se(就其本身而言):The direct translation of this term is "byitself" and it means just that when used in English as well. You could useit to say that you don't find chemistry boring per se (by itself,intrinsically), but this professor's voice puts you to sleep.

 

Vice versa(反之亦然):From the Latin meaning"to change" or "turn around," this term means to reversethe order of something . This quote from Samuel Butler provides an example,"In the midst of vice we are in virtue, and vice versa."

 

Alma mater(母校尤指大学):If you don't know this term already, you'llbecome quite familiar with it once you graduate from college. The literaltranslation is "dear/bountiful mother" but you'll find it used ineveryday language to denote the college or university from which one hasgraduated.

 

Magnum opus(大师之作/绝好的艺术作品): Whether it's in writing,painting, sculpture or music, this Latin term denotes the greatest work done byan artist-- a true masterpiece.

 

Bona fide(在法律术语中指良好的意图/一般表示真诚的和善意的): While it's literal translationmeans "good faith" this term has a few different shades of meaning inmodern language. In legal terms, it is used to represent something that ispresented without deception or fraud, or literally in good faith, honest,sincere and lawful. It is more commonly used to mean something that's the realdeal or truly authentic.

 

Quasi(类似的,有如): In Latin, this wordmeans as if or as though and in English it is used as both an adjective in itsown right and as a part of a compound word. It simply designates something thatresembles something else but doesn't quite have all the same features.

 

Alter ego(密友,或者个性的另一面): Cicero coined thisterm, most likely taken from the Greek, to mean "a second self" or"another I" and its modern meaning hasn't changed much today. Manypeople have an alter ego, or another, perhaps hidden aspect of themselves. Oneexample from popular culture is Beyonce's alter ego, Sasha Fierce.

 

Verbatim(逐字逐句的/地): If you repeat something verbatim you repeat itin exactly the same words, word for word with no changes and no improvisation.

Status quo(现状): From the Latinmeaning "the state in which" this term is used today to designate theexisting state or condition of things. For example, if you're making money offof a high pollution industry it is to your interests to maintain the status quowhen it comes to environmental law.

 

二、Writing 写作的时候常用到的拉丁文

 

Sic(这个是指原作品中出现了错误,编辑在此指出): Found in writing, thisLatin word most commonly finds a home in brackets (like this: [sic]) whenquoting a statement or writing. It indicates that there is a spelling orgrammar error (or just something out of the ordinary) in the original quotationand that the publication has only reproduced it faithfully, not made an errorof their own.

 

Id est(缩写是i.e.,通常在作者想要给出具体的例子和解释的时候): You've likely seen this termin writing before, even if you weren't aware as it is commonly abbreviated toi.e. In Latin, it means "that is" and is used in English when thespeaker or writer wants to give an example or explanation that specifies astatement.

 

Deus ex machina(解围的人或事件): In directtranslation, this term means, "God out of a machine" and it harkensback ancient Greek and Roman plays. When the plot would become too tangled orconfusing, the writers would simply bring in God, lowered in via a pulleysystem (the machine) and he would wrap it all up. Today, it's still used inliterature to describe a plot where an artificial or improbable means ofresolving a conflict is used.

 

Exempli gratia(缩写是e.g.,这通常会用在例子前面,for the sake of example): You'll often see this term abbreviated to e.g. inwriting. It means "for the sake of example" and when it see it in asentence you can expect that is will be followed by some examples.

 

Et cetera(缩写是etc. 意思是and the others还有其他的): Few out there aren't familiar with this termbut may not know it as well when it's spelled out like this and not abbreviatedas etc. Meaning "and the others" it is used to denote that a list ofthings could continue ad infinitum (see below for definition) and that for thesake of brevity it's better to just wrap things up with a simple etc.

 

Ex libris(专指书籍从...图书馆来): Back in the dayswhen books were rarer and more expensive commodities than they were today, itwas common to mark your books with a label bearing your own name and thisphrase which means "from the library of." While not as common today,some true bibliophiles still use the labels.

 

Ibidem(缩写是ibid,常被用在文献页,指同一个资料来源被引用了两次): Another abbreviated term, thisword is more commonly seen in research writing in the form of "ibid."From the Latin for "in the same place" it is found in footnotes andbibliographies to designate that the same source has been cited twice insuccession.

 

Et alii(缩写是et al, 通常用在一本合著的书的某一个作者名字之后以省略罗列其他的作者名字): You're unlikely toencounter this Latin phrase in its unabbreviated form, and will most likelyonly ever see it as et al when included. This is also a term that is found infootnotes and bibliographies which allows writers to refer to a large number ofauthors without having to write each name out (for example, you could say thatyour source is Dr. Henry Jones et al.)

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